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Ask the Captain: All about airplane flaps and slats To keep takeoff and landing speeds as low as possible, engineers include highly efficient flaps and slats on the wing.
Ask the Captain: All about airplane flaps and slats To keep takeoff and landing speeds as low as possible, engineers include highly efficient flaps and slats on the wing.
Check out this story on USATODAY.
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John Cox, Special to USA TODAY Published 3:00 p.
ET March 1, 2019 Updated 1:05 p.
ET March 3, 2019 Question: Is there a speed limit for planes while taxiing on the taxiway?
Answer: Some airports have speed limits but more often airplanes will have a limitation in the flight manual for maximum taxi speeds.
This is usually around 30 knots.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: Why do jumbo jets ascend at a lower rate?
It takes them much longer to get to the desired altitude.
Answer: Large four-engine airplanes are slower to climb than two-engine airplanes due to the amount of excess thrust of two-engine airplanes.
If a two-engine airplane experiences a loss of thrust in one engine 50% of the total thrustit must still be able to climb and continue flight safely.
A loss of thrust for a four-engine airplane only results in a 25% loss of thrust.
The twin-engine plane has more excess thrust when all engines are operating and therefore climbs faster.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: When a plane is experiencing severe turbulence, it's difficult to judge how far "down" it appears to be falling or dropping — inches or feet?
Answer: In heavy turbulence it can feel like the airplane is going up and down long distances, when in reality it is only a few feet.
Humans notice the rate of change how fast you are going up or down more than the magnitude of the excursion.
Very rarely, turbulence can cause a change of a few hundred feet, but most times it is less than 100 feet.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: If aircraft weight is so important, why aren't aircraft windows made larger?
Aren't those materials lighter than the rest of the aircraft?
Answer: The structure around the window is heavier.
If you look at airplanes designed as freighters, they do not have windows.
This is done to reduce the weight and maintenance costs.
How does the airplane landing gear handle the added stress of such landings?
Answer: If you look carefully, the airplane will yaw before touchdown to be more closely aligned with the runway.
The pilot uses the rudder to reduce the crab angle just prior to touchdown.
This reduces the sideload on the main landing gear.
During certification flights the manufacturers demonstrate crosswind landing without yawing prior to touchdown to test the capability of the landing gear.
While the gear is designed to take the load, it is a lot of force.
Answer: In the 1980s, airliners with aft-mounted engines e.
Today, most large airliners have underwing-mounted engines; they are too close to the ground and have a potential to ingest debris during a powerback.
Powerback has safety risks; only a few aft-mounted engine jets could do it.
I do not know of any airline using that procedure today.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren,special to USA TODAY Question: In the cockpit are all those buttons and knobs really used or necessary to fly the plane?
Answer: Yes, the buttons and knobs are used to control the airplane in normal flight or when there is a problem with a system.
While they look confusing to the layperson the pilots know exactly what each one does and how it is to be used.
Ben Mutzabaugh, USA TODAY Question: Recently there seems to be an increase in aircraft sliding off a taxiway or runway.
Are difference between slats and slots conditions not safe enough for them to be flying or is it just a matter of the ground crew needing to do a better job of clearing the surface?
Answer: In very inclement weather with slick taxiways, the chances of aircraft sliding off the paved surfaces increase.
It can be safe to operate the aircraft based on previous reports but still find that the taxiway is slicker than anticipated due to changing conditions.
Pilots taxi very carefully when conditions exist where sliding is possible.
Ground crews do a wonderful job of clearing snow and ice from the surfaces, but there are limits to what they can do.
Ryan Soderlin, Omaha World-Herald via AP Question: How safe are commercial airports with short runways?
Answer: Commercial airports certified by the Federal Aviation Administration's are very safe.
Runway length is carefully calculated before every takeoff and landing with good safety margins.
Pilots know that the runway length is short, so they pay special attention to touchdown points and approach speeds.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren, special for USA TODAY Question: Why are airlines still using 50-plus-year-old black boxes, when the technology currently exists to transmit all the same cockpit data and voice information in real time via satellite communications?
Answer: While technically possible, there are significant issues with real-time up-streaming of data.
Who owns the data?
What can it be used for?
Can it be hacked?
The Digital Flight Data and Cockpit Voice recorders have proven to be very successful over the decades.
There is reluctance to lose this proven technology.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: How would you suggest a passenger cope with turbulence, physically and emotionally?
Answer: The best steps to take physically are to remain seated with your seat belt securely fastened.
This will prevent you being bounced around in the seat.
If you want to sit in the area of the airplane that moves the least during turbulence, then choose a seat over the middle of the wing.
The aft section of the airplane moves the most.
Fear of the unknown is the root of the emotional discomfort.
Some people believe that the airplane will suffer damage or even crash due to turbulence.
The facts prove otherwise.
Modern airplanes are designed to withstand very heavy turbulence.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: What problems would cause you to make an emergency landing?
Answer: A diversion to land at an alternate airport is often erroneously described as an emergency landing in media accounts.
There is no emergency, but there is a change in plans.
A problem with the pressurization system may require a diversion.
A passenger with a medical problem may require a diversion.
Some electrical problems will require a diversion.
If there is an onboard fire, then an emergency landing is necessary.
The difference is that in some fire conditions, the situation requires landing as soon as possible.
That is an emergency.
There are other conditions that require a diversion but only a very few require a true emergency landing.
Answer: A pilot with significant experience can transition to a very large airplane quickly.
There is little difference in the handling characteristics, but the flight deck height and wingspan require practice.
The 747 and A380 pilots I know characterize both as easy airplanes to fly.
Jeremy Dwyer-Lindgren for USA TODAY Question: What do you think of the recent attention given to companion animals on flights?
Answer: The issue of companion animals is a difficult one.
There have been cases of animals biting passengers, getting loose, urinating and worse.
The airlines had to do something due to the number of bad events that continued to rise.
Current requirements for certification for the need for the animal by a doctor or physiologist appear to be reasonable.
Dave Einsel for USA TODAY Question: What is the top speed for a typical jetliner without compromising the air frame?
Answer: Airplanes only know their speed in relation to the air around them.
If there is a 200 mph tail wind, the speed of the airplane across the ground would be over 750 mph.
All air frame speed limitations are based on airspeed not ground speed.
Julio Cortez, AP Question: Do pilots have to eat different meals on a flight?
Answer: I have not seen an FAA requirement for a meal difference.
Many airlines require different meals for members of the flight crew in the belief that it mitigates risk of food-borne illness, but it is a choice made by each operator.
What is the purpose of the scalloped edge?
Answer: Newer engines have the saw tooth cowlings.
They help make the engine quieter, particularly at higher power.
Answer: The Air Force carefully limits the information about the specifics of an Air Force One flight.
So if there were an aerial refueling we would not know about it.
The specially modified B747s that fly the president are capable of aerial refueling, and the crews maintain proficiency in this skill.
The direct answer to your question is that it is possible, but the information is not released.
Jim Lo Scalzo, EPA-EFE Question: Why do the cabins on passenger jets get hot when flights are delayed on the ground after leaving the gate?
Does the air conditioning system rely on power or airflow levels only available in flight?
Answer: When the engines are at idle, they do not produce much compressed air used for cooling.
This can result in a warm cabin.
The issue is the amount of air available for cooling when not in flight, where the flow is robust.
Answer: It is a certification requirement by the regulatory agencies e.
This is an old requirement that came from the 1960s to ensure that a person had a place to extinguish a cigarette other than throwing it in the lavatory trash bin where it could cause a paper fire.
The requirement has never been changed because there are still airlines around the world that allow smoking, and airplanes are often sold between airlines.
Is it pilot's technique?
Answer: The conditions vary greatly from landing to landing.
Wind, runway conditions, weight of the airplane and many other factors can cause some landings to be less smooth than others.
Yes, pilot technique can be a cause, but it is usually not the only cause.
Digital Vision Question: What lifts the plane off the ground on takeoff, the pilot using a control or just reaching a certain speed for lift?
Answer: Once the airplane has accelerated to the proper speed, known as rotation speed or Vr, the pilot commands the elevators on the tail to raise the nose.
Small airplanes will fly off, but jets and larger airplanes have to be commanded to raise the nose.
Stephanie Lecocq, EPA-EFE Question: Can you please tell me exactly what's going on during the descent, and if it's as dangerous as it seems?
Answer: It is not dangerous.
Flying is the safest form of transportation ever created by mankind.
Descending from cruise altitude can take many forms due to the requirements of air traffic control.
In some cases, it is necessary to descend quickly to meet crossing restrictions.
Pilots practice this frequently and airplanes are designed for it.
There is no problem with this.
A smaller airplane may provide more sensation of rapidly descending, but https://spin-jackpot-money.website/and-slots/willy-wonka-and-the-chocolate-factory-free-slots.html usually fly nearly the same profiles as larger ones.
Michael Probst, AP Question: Some aircraft have three seats on one side of the aisle and two seats on the other side.
Does this imbalance affect aircraft performance?
Answer: The weight is balanced due to the aisle being offset a bit.
They fly normally with no imbalance due to good design engineering.
How does one become an airline pilot?
How much do they make?
Answer: Yes, there is a definite pilot shortage.
It is true in all parts of aviation: airline, corporate, training, military and other types of aviation.
To become an airline pilot, a candidate must have all the necessary licenses, a minimum of 1,500 flight hours and meet the entry requirements of the airline these vary somewhat.
Talk to flight training organizations to provide you with the most current information.
Salaries vary depending on the operator but can reach six figures annually.
Do you anticipate that this will replace full-motion simulators in the near future?
Answer: Flight training technology is expanding constantly.
Simulators today are very realistic and are a form of virtual reality already.
This trend is likely to continue.
There is a longstanding debate regarding the need for motion in simulators.
I have flown both full-motion and chair-movement simulators.
So far, I prefer the full-motion simulators due to the greater fidelity.
I would not expect full-motion simulators to be replaced in the near future.
Answer: I would not say they get bored, but it can become repetitive.
Pilots flying the same route, such as the New York, Boston, Washington shuttle become very, very familiar with the route.
That said, no two flights are the same.
It is a sea of neon surrounded by the black ocean.
Getty Images Question: Can pilots really make up time in the air?
Michael Probst, AP Question: Can the 747 be saved?
It's sad to see the most beautiful and iconic passenger plane ever built being retired.
Answer: The 747 will remain in service in cargo operations for several more years.
In passenger service, it has been overtaken economically.
The new fuel-efficient twins cost so much less to operate that the 747 cannot compete.
Four-engine airplanes are becoming more rare due to economics and the technical advances of the twins.
This trend will continue.
Answer: Most modern airliners have more than a single tire on a landing gear.
The tires are designed to take the load if the companion tire is compromised.
If the pilots know a tire has failed during takeoff at low speed, they will abort the takeoff.
At high speed they will go ahead and take off, then return to land for a safety inspection.
If the tire fails during landing, a normal landing is conducted.
Stephen Brashear, Getty Images Question: Are airplanes more likely to experience more turbulence during one season than another?
Answer: Each season has challenges: Summer has thunderstorms and tropical storms.
Autumn has late tropical storms usually the quietest season.
Winter has higher winds, blizzards and more clear air turbulence.
Spring has fast-moving fronts and high winds, causing severe squall lines.
Each of these events can cause turbulence.
https://spin-jackpot-money.website/and-slots/mecca-bingo-and-slots.html I miss the camaraderie of many of my fellow pilots; the challenge of precisely maneuvering an airplane, particularly a jet, from place to place in inclement weather safely; the beauty of sights that only pilots get to see e.
Answer: Some runways are more challenging due to the slope and humps.
The slope is included in performance calculations for takeoff and landing, as it can affect acceleration and deceleration.
Runways are rarely the same elevation at each end, so in many cases the question is the amount of slope.
There is also a need to keep taxiways at a reasonable slope, and there may be differences in elevation on a different axis.
Airport designers must make compromises for efficiency and cost.
Answer: A captain always has the final decision regarding the route of flight and how the airplane is being flown.
Air traffic control is responsible for ensuring proper separation between airplanes on instrument flight plans.
Usually pilots will follow difference between slats and slots filed flight plan routing with ATC approval ; if it coincides with the eclipse then making a PA to advise the passengers would be routine.
Business aviation or private pilots may request special routing to view the eclipse from cruising altitude and if ATC can accommodate the request they will.
David Zalubowski, AP Question: Why haven't modern airplanes been built with extensive video surveillance of the outside of the aircraft so pilots can observe all parts, especially if something goes wrong?
Answer: Some large airplanes have cameras installed in strategic places.
They provide valuable information for taxiing and can be used in flight if necessary.
The instruments provide pilots with a good indication of problems or system malfunctions.
The direct answer to your question is that the manufacturers have not determined that the benefit justifies the cost.
Warren, AP Question: How and why is fuel dumped from a flight: Answer: Some airplanes, usually large intercontinental jets, have the capability to dump fuel in flight.
This is done via valves in the wingtips that allow fuel to be pumped out and vaporized.
The purpose of dumping fuel is to reduce the weight of the airplane.
Most airplanes have a maximum takeoff weight that is higher than maximum landing weight.
Should a problem develop soon after takeoff, the weight may be above the maximum landing weight, and dumping fuel allows the weight to be reduced quickly.
LM Otero, AP Question: What is the highest altitude an airplane can fly?
Answer: The highest commercial airliner altitude was 60,000 feet by Concorde.
The highest military air-breathing engine airplane was the SR-71 — about 90,000 feet.
The highest airliner flying today reaches 45,000 feet.
The highest business jet flying today reaches 51,000 feet.
Getty Images Question: When a baby is born in flight, what determines the nationality of the child?
Answer: The nationality of the child is dependent on which airline the birth occurs, where it occurs and the nationality of the parents.
Different countries treat births differently.
In some cases, rules stipulate that where the baby is born, the nationality is offered or required.
Other countries have the nationality of the parents as their rule.
In some cases, the nationality of the airline can become the nationality of the baby.
Based on this patchwork of rules, there are scenarios in which multiple citizenships may be available qt connecting signals and slots the child from which the parents can choose.
Answer: Manufacturers and airlines frequently demonstrate evacuations to regulators.
This is done when a new airplane is certified or when an airline purchases a new airplane.
The participants are not specially trained and represent a wide age range.
They are aware that they are participating in an evacuation drill, but not given any more information.
Half of the exits are blocked.
The participants are not aware of which exits are blocked until the evacuation is started.
Every occupant must be safely off the airplane within 90 seconds.
Answer: Listening and understanding radio calls from ATC is a learned skill.
Pilots fly for many years, working with ATC.
The more experienced crews fly into more complex airports.
Part of the training process for first officers before upgrading to captain is experiencing many different ATC environments.
Joe Raedle, Getty Images Question: What happens when lightning strikes a plane?
Answer: Lightning strikes will usually leave small burn marks or holes at the entry and exit point.
Airplanes are designed to allow lightning to move along the skin of the airplane without doing damage.
Occasionally, a static wick will be the victim of lightning exiting the airplane.
Ethan Miller, Getty Images Question: I believe aircraft have de-icing mechanisms.
What is the difference between these and, say, a windshield defroster, just click for source why couldn't they be used in place of having wings sprayed with de-icing solution?
Answer: Inflight de-icing equipment de-ices only the leading edges of the wings, propellers and sometimes the tail.
Other parts of the airplane, such as the windshield and pitot tubes, are heated to prevent ice buildup.
On the ground, ice forms on the entire surface of the airplane, resulting in significant weight and the distortion of the airflow, which is potentially dangerous.
Consequently, ice must be completely removed from the airplane before takeoff.
Heated fluid knocks the ice off the airplane, then a thick gel is applied, so any ice or snow that falls will not stick to the airplane and will blow off during the takeoff roll.
This gel is effective for only a limited time, requiring pilots to refer to tables to determine how long the period between de-icing and takeoff can be.
Trying to heat the entire airplane would require a very large amount of hot air and a very heavy mechanism; therefore, it is not efficient.
Alexa Welch Edlund, Richmond Times-Dispatch via AP Question: The airlines are adding more seats to their planes.
Are they jeopardizing passenger safety?
Answer: No, each airplane is certified for a maximum number of passengers based on the ability to evacuate all passengers and crew within 90 seconds.
Most airlines do not have the maximum number of seats installed, so an increase in the seats that is still below the maximum certified number does not jeopardize safety.
Warren, AP Question: What is yaw, and how does it affect an airplane?
Answer: Yaw is movement of the nose of the aircraft perpendicular to the wings left or right.
It can cause the heading to change and can create asymmetrical lift on the wings, causing one wing to rise and the other to lower roll.
Jets with swept wings have a natural tendency to yaw, requiring an automatic small input to the rudder to counter it.
The device that inputs this small rudder is known as the yaw damper.
Carolyn Kaster, AP Question: I've flown on the Airbus 380 several times.
It seems to me the taxi speed is slower than smaller equipment.
Is this an illusion of size — larger objects appear to be moving slower — and the higher position of seats in the upper deck?
Or are there reasons, such as fuel-use and braking concerns, that make it taxi more slowly?
Answer: The A380 is a very large airplane, which has a wingspan of more than 260 feet.
The long wingspan means the jet can taxi only on certain designated taxiways and will have the wingtip pass closer to objects and other airplanes.
Consequently, A380 captains do tend to taxi more slowly.
The weight of the airplane causes increased stopping distances.
You are correct that being in the upper deck and the sheer size of the airplane make it appear to move more slowly, but large airplanes do tend to taxi a bit slower.
Do you think narrow-body aircraft will be the future for international travel?
Answer: It is possible that several airlines could begin flying A321LRs on trans-Atlantic routes.
The airplane has the range to make the flight.
The Boeing 757 has been used on less-traveled trans-Atlantic routes for many years.
Both are single-aisle airplanes, also known as narrow-body aircraft.
As the service to secondary cities continues to increase, the ability to fly non-stop instead of connecting in a hub to a wide-body aircraft will be very appealing.
The planes will not replace the wide-body aircraft flown between the https://spin-jackpot-money.website/and-slots/magasin-slot-and-go.html cities.
There is growing discussion about low-cost trans-Atlantic airline service.
In the past, it was not successful; however, there are several budget international airlines entering the market or interested in doing so.
Ben Mutzabaugh, USA TODAY Question: Is over-reliance on automation increasing the number of commercial airline accidents?
Answer: No, the number of accidents is decreasing.
Over-reliance on automation has become a factor in a larger percentage of accidents, but the overall number is trending downward.
The appropriate use of automation and maintaining manual flying skills are focus items for aviation.
Training has to include extensive use of automation and manual flying.
Alexander Hassenstein, Getty Images Question: Can a larger aircraft land on a shorter than recommended runway in an emergency?
Answer: Yes, it can be done.
Every airplane has a required runway length due to the physics of decelerating.
It is much shorter than many people realize.
When landing on very short runways, the pilots will very carefully control the speed, touch down on the touchdown point and use all of the deceleration devices brakes, spoilers and reverse thrust.
Rob Griffith, AP Question: Where does my bag go when I check it?
Answer: From the time a bag is checked in, a series of belts and carts transport it to the waiting airplane.
If your airplane is a larger one, the bag will be loaded into a container to make it faster to load onto the airplane.
Security screening of the bag occurs before loading to ensure the safety of the flight.
When the loading begins, it is sent up via belt loader or in the container into the cargo hold where it is kept warm sort of and pressurized during the fight.
At your destination, the reverse occurs.
The belt loader or container loader takes the bag to a cart where it is sent to the terminal to meet you.
Patrick Semansky, AP Question: When the announcement is made that, "The pilot has begun his initial approach," why is the word initial used?
It implies there may be more than one approach.
Answer: It is a differentiation of the segments of the approach.
There is an initial part of the approach and a final phase of the approach.
The final phase is often the last 5 miles when the airplane is aligned with the runway and is descending toward it.
Answer: Airplanes often fly domestic and overwater flights in the same day.
It is not uncommon for an airplane to fly several domestic flights, then fly to Bermuda or the Caribbean.
Returning from the overwater flights, it then flies other domestic legs.
One of the NTSB recommendations from the accident in the Hudson was to have all airliners have life vests available for passengers due to the large number of lakes and other bodies of water over which airplanes fly.
Gluck, AP Question: Right after takeoff, it often seems that the pilot slows down and the plane drops somewhat.
Answer: The sensation of slowing down is really one of slowing the rate of acceleration; this is due to reducing the thrust after takeoff to the climb setting.
The rate of climb is reduced, causing it to feel like a descent.
Answer: Lights vary on airplanes, but all have red and green lights on the wing tip, and a white light visible from behind it can be on the tail or aft part of the wing tip.
Additionally there are landing lights to provide illumination of the runway during landing.
A taxi light provides a lower-power light to see taxiways; the taxi light can be supplemented by special lights to help make sharp turns.
There are often lights that illuminate the wings so the pilots can inspect for ice build-up.
The red flashing lights on the top and bottom are known as anti-collision lights.
Many airplanes have bright flashing white lights called strobes making them easier to see.
Answer: Unexpected turbulence is uncomfortable, but is not a safety risk to the airplane.
Airplanes are designed for it.
The last case of a turbulence-caused accident was in the 1960s in Japan.
There are some similarities with a boat hitting a wave in water.
One difference is that the airplane may experience more vertical displacement, making it feel more severe.
Most humans do not like the sensation of negative Gs, which you feel when the airplane drops suddenly.
That sensation is caused by the vestibular system in your ears.
In everyday life we do not experience negative Gs often, making the sensation unusual and scary to some people.
This is a normal reaction.
Pilots have experienced this sensation many times and have no problem flying the airplane safely.
Answer: There are two different types of airport codes: the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO and the International Air Transport Association IATA.
ICAO uses a four-letter code, in which the first letter is the country code.
The USA uses K for its code.
The New York airports are KJFK for Kennedy, KLGA for LaGuardia and KEWR for Newark.
These codes are used for the filing of flight plans and for air traffic control purposes.
The IATA codes are used see more ticketing and are three letters.
Chicago O'Hare is ORD, London Heathrow is LHR, and London Gatwick is LGW.
The IATA codes are used for baggage, too.
Jason Kempin, Getty Images for TackleEbola Question: Why is there no window next to my seat?
Answer: When jets are certified, one consideration is the consequence of a catastrophic engine failure, where rotating engine components are not contained within the cowling.
In the very rare event of uncontained parts puncturing through the cowling, it is possible that they could strike a window causing damage and decompression.
This area is strengthened, and the area where the window would normally be is solid.
Jeremy Martin via AP Question: Do airplanes have a hard time taking off in hot weather?
Answer: I would not say they have a hard time, but performance is definitely limited by the heat.
Hot air does not allow the wing to create as much lift fewer air molecules ; therefore, the weight must be reduced to maintain the required climb path.
Very high temperatures such as Arizona, the Middle East or other desert environments require careful preflight planning.
Rob Schumacher, The Arizona Republic Question: Is it safer to be on a smaller plane or larger one?
Answer: It is not possible to make a safety differentiation between small or large airplanes because the terms are vague.
Regional airline-size airplanes have a somewhat higher accident rate than do larger airline jets.
Turboprops have a higher accident rate than jets.
Airline jets have some models having lower accident rates than others, but size is not the determining factor.
Aviation is the safest form of transportation.
This makes it very hard to say that one airplane is significantly safer than another.
They are both safe — even if one type has a slightly higher accident rate, that rate is still infinitesimal.
Mark Wilson, Getty Images Question: How long will supplemental oxygen last after the masks drop in an emergency?
Answer: On typical airliners oxygen generators will last 10 to 14 minutes.
That is more than enough time to descend to 10,000 feet or the lowest altitude above the terrain.
Airplanes can descend very rapidly, which means the need for supplemental oxygen lasts only a few minutes.
Getty Images Question: Why does it take so long to open the exit door?
The anti-collision light this is the red blinking light on the top and bottom of the airplane is switched off, informing ground crew that it is safe to approach the airplane.
Ground crew members then begin to position the jet bridge, aligning it with the door.
Once the jet bridge is mated to the aircraft and the cover is in place, the ground agent either opens the door or taps on it for the flight attendant to open it.
Once the door is initially opened, the ground agent assists in fully opening it and ensuring that it is locked in the open position.
This is the generic procedure for most jet airliners.
Regional or smaller airplanes have a slightly different procedure as their stairs are built into the door.
Answer: The runway number is the approximate magnetic heading.
As an example, runway 35 is pointing approximately 350 degrees magnetic.
The opposite end of the runway is 17 or approximately 170 degrees magnetic.
When there are two parallel runways pointing in the same direction, they are designated with the proper number and a left or right identifier.
Two runways pointed east are named 09 Left and 09 Right.
The 09 indicate they are pointed 090, due east, and the left and right identify the parallels.
If there are four runways or more, the airport will change one of the runway numbers to help differentiate them.
As an example, the north runways pointed to the southwest at LAX are named 24 Left and Right, while the south runways are named 25 Left and Right.
The runways point in the same direction but the difference allows pilots to know which runway to use.
Answer: Computer security is taken very seriously.
Airplane flight control and flight management computers are segregated and hardened against outside intrusions.
It is possible a hacker might interfere with an in-flight entertainment system, but those and the onboard wireless system have separate pathways from the flight computers.
Improving security is an ongoing effort by manufacturers, operators and the regulators.
Mario Tama, Getty Images Question: Why is shipping lithium-ion batteries considered dangerous, yet almost all passengers have cellphones with them?
Answer: A lithium battery installed in a device is less likely to enter thermal runaway and, if it does, there are few batteries nearby to be driven into thermal runaway.
Shipping lithium batteries on passenger aircraft poses a risk that is higher than many operators find acceptable because of the rapid expansion of a fire when lithium batteries enter thermal runaway.
FAA via AP Question: Are there routes over the continental U.
Answer: In some conditions when there are high surface winds, crossing the Rocky Mountains can be turbulent.
The mountain waves this condition creates are more pronounced around larger mountains, making the airways crossing them more turbulent.
Answer: If an older airplane is properly maintained, it is safe.
The age is not a factor; it is the quality of maintenance that matters.
Answer: Some of the larger airplanes e.
Airbus A340 and A380, and the Boeing 747-8 have cameras to help assist the pilots on taxiways and at gates.
B737 and A320 do not need them as the flight crew can see the wingtips.
The widebody airplanes that do not have cameras installed by the manufacturer require careful positioning by the captain during taxiing and parking.
It has not been cost-effective to retrofit these airplanes with cameras.
Jasper Colt, USA TODAY Question: When an aircraft is descending toward landing, it seems some planes fly down nose pointed downward, and some seem to float down with the nose pointed up.
Is this true, and if so, why the difference?
Answer: When configured for landing, the position of the nose is determined by whether there are leading edge slats installed.
Airplanes with leading edge slats movable panels on the front of the wing approach the runway with the nose up, while airplanes without slats approach with the nose down.
Mario Tama, Getty Images Question: Have you ever gotten lost at an airport, considering the congested nature of some U.
Answer: Taxiing, particularly at a slotted and drilled rotors airport in limited visibility at night, can be very challenging.
Many of the modern airliners have electronic maps with the position of the airplane displayed, which really helps.
Those that do not have electronic displays require the crew to have taxi charts out and to agree machine terms slot conditions common and the taxi clearance and actual route.
I have never been lost but have taxied slowly and been very careful to follow the taxi clearance, using input from the first officer.
Answer: Air traffic control does a great job of keeping airplanes separated, be they commercial, private or military.
In addition, the military branches have special airspace they can use for training and maneuvers.
Ian Hitchcock, Getty Images Question: How could a plane land at the wrong airport?
Answer: There are several contributing reasons: Humans often see what they expect to see, even when it is wrong.
This is known as confirmation bias and contributes to the pilot believing it is the correct airport and runway when it is not.
Two pilots and rigorous crosschecking with navigation displays normally break the confirmation bias early.
Fatigue can also be a factor, as performance degradation can make it more difficult to recognize the mistake.
Modern airplanes have many wonderful navigation tools helping to avoid such events.
Brett Deering, Getty Images Question: How do flight planners determine which aircraft to use on what route?
Answer: Airlines have route-planning specialists to ensure that the right-size airplane is used for the route, that any maintenance considerations are taken into account, and that airplanes arrive at the proper location for inspections and service at the proper intervals.
It is an art to keep the schedule running.
The scheduling professionals learn the job after years of airline experience and are vital to smooth operations.
I have landed on ice-covered runways many times using the anti-skid system to safely stop the airplane.
Pilots listen carefully to other landing airplanes for descriptions of the stopping ability on the runway.
Runway and magasin paris slot go can change quickly, requiring judgment and experience by the pilot to determine whether it is safe to proceed.
This system has worked very well for many decades to ensure the safety of landing aircraft.
How are these procedures done?
Answer: Pilots keep the airplane centered on the runway using a combination of nose-wheel steering and rudder.
From very basic flight training, it is a skill that snakes and slot machine taught and evaluated frequently.
It is critical to keep the airplane aligned with the center line.
Some airplanes are easier than others, but a pilot is expected to master it before being released to fly.
Pilots watch for drift during takeoff roll and apply rudder with the rudder pedals.
On some airplanes at lower speeds it may be necessary to add a bit of nose-wheel steering to achieve the desired track.
Rob Schumacher, The Arizona Republic Question: Do airline pilots need a college degree?
Answer: Pilots have varied backgrounds; most are college graduates, and many have master's degrees or PhDs.
It is more important to be able to difference between slats and slots the material, understand it and properly apply it than to have a specific level of education.
Joe Raedle, Getty Images Question: What do the in-flight chimes mean?
Answer: Different airlines use the chimes differently.
Here are some uses I've witnessed in my career: A single chime could be to the flight attendants to advise them of pending choppy air, perhaps serious enough that they should be seated.
Another possibility would be, "when you have time, could we please have a coffee?
Three or more chimes could be to tell the flight attendants to be seated NOW due to difference between slats and slots of turbulence that were just received by the pilots.
Cabin crew can also use the chimes to communicate with the flight deck.
A single chime could be, "would you like coffee?
To keep the takeoff and landing speeds as low as possible, the design engineers include highly efficient flaps and slats on the wing.
Question: What are the flaps on the leading edge of the wing for?
When extended they alter the airflow so the wing can produce more lift at lower speed.
For high-speed flight, they are retracted to reduce drag.
Flaps and slats increase the lift that the wing can produce at lower speed.
Examples include when there is snow or ice on the taxiway or when the airplane is going to be de-iced.
Flaps remain retracted until near the runway to prevent damage to them.
If you are taxiing on a nice summer day and the flaps are not extended then advising a flight attendant could be appropriate.
Q: When is it necessary to do full flaps for takeoff and when are minimal flaps needed?
High-altitude airports and higher temperatures cause airplanes to use reduced flap settings to ensure adequate climb performance.
This requires accelerating to a higher speed before lifting the nose for flight rotation.
Shorter runways require more flaps to get airborne in the shorter distance available.
Q: What is the procedure for landing without flaps or slats down?
Have there been any commercial planes that have had to land without flaps or slats and is it something you train for?
A no-flap or no-slat landing requires a higher approach speed and longer landing roll.
Pilots train for such conditions in the simulator.
Yes, airplanes have landed with no slats or no flaps.
Near the end of my airline career, my Airbus A320 had the flaps lock in the up position.
We landed in Providence, Rhode Island, after completing the checklists without any problems.
John Cox is a retired airline captain with US Airways and runs his own aviation safety consulting company, Safety Operating Systems.
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